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This article is intended with covering the basic FAQs about Copyright registration in India. For the sake of better focusing, format of questions and answers has been adopted.
- What is Copyright?
Copyright is a right given by the law to creators of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works and producers of cinematograph films and sound recordings. It is important to note that Copyright does not protect the ideas but protects the expression of the ideas.
- What kind of works can be protected by Copyright?
The Copyright Act, 1957 protects original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works and cinematograph films and sound recordings from unauthorized uses.
- What kind of works cannot be protected by Copyright?
Ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such, titles, or names, short word combinations, slogans, short phrases, methods, plots or factual information are not protected by Copyright.
- Who can file for Copyright registration?
Any individual who is an author or rights owner or assignee or legal heir can file application for copyright of a work.
- Where can applications for Copyright be filed?
Applications can be filed both online and through Physical mode. Physical applications have to be directed to:
Department Of Industrial Policy & Promotion,
Ministry of Commerce and Industry;
G-30 Super Market August Kranti Bhawan
Bhikaji Kama Palace
New Delhi- 110066
For e-filing, instructions available at http://copyright.gov.in/UserRegistration/frmLoginPage.aspx may be referred.
- Can both the unpublished and published works be protected by Copyright?
- Is quality of work important for Copyright registration?
It is the originality of the work that is mandatory for the registration and not the quality of the work.
- What is the procedure for Copyright Registration in India?
After application has been filed and diary number has been allocated, applicant has to wait for a mandatory period of 30 days to check if any objection is filed in the Copyright office against applicant’s claim that particular work is created by him. If such objection is filed it may take another one month time to decide as to whether the work could be registered by the Registrar of Copyrights after giving an opportunity of hearing the matter from both the parties. If no objection is filed then application goes for scrutiny from the examiners. If any discrepancy is found the applicant is given 30 days time to remove the same. Therefore, it may take 2 to 3 months time for registration of any work in the normal course.
- What kind works of website can be protected through Copyright?
A web-site contains several works such as literary works, artistic works (photographs etc.), sound recordings, video clips, cinematograph films and broadcastings and computer software too. Separate applications have to be filed for registration of all these works.
- Whether computer Software or Computer Programme can be registered?
Yes. Computer Software or programme can be registered as a ‘literary work’. As per Section 2 (o) of the Copyright Act, 1957 “literary work” includes computer programmes, tables and compilations, including computer databases. ‘Source Code’ has also to be supplied along with the application for registration of copyright for software products.
- What kinds of right are granted to Copyright owner?
Copyright owner has two types of rights related to his work:
Economic Rights: Economic rights include for example right of reproduction, right of performance, right of broadcasting and right of communication which are derived from right of performance, rights of translation and adaptation.
Moral Rights: These are the rights that allow owner to maintain his image. These rights allow author to claim authorship of the work and to restrain or claim damages in respect of any distortion, mutilation, modification or other act in relation to the said work which is done even after the expiration of the term of copyright if such distortion, mutilation, modification or other act would be prejudicial to his honour or reputation. It’s important to note that moral rights remain with original creator even after whole or in part assignment of the work.
- What is the term of Protection granted by Copyright?
Term of the protection depends on the type of work. Generally, it’s until the expiration of the 50th year after the author’s death. In case of anonymous work, it’s until 50th year after the work has been lawfully made available to the public. In case of pseudonymous work, it’s until 50th year after the work has been lawfully made available to the public, but if author leaves no doubt about the identity or reveals the identity of his or her work, the general rule applies. In case of Audiovisual (cinematographic) works, it’s 50 years after the making available of the work to the public (“release”) or if such event did not take place, then from the creation of the work. In case of applied art and photographic works, it’s 25 years from the creation of the work.
- Is India member of the international treaties related to Copyright?
Except, WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT), India is a member of most of the important international conventions governing the area of copyright law, including the Berne Convention of 1886, the Universal Copyright Convention of 1951, the Rome Convention of 1961 and the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
- Which sections of the Act define what is and what is not infringement of Copyright?
Section 51 of the Act deals with the provisions related to infringement of the Copyright. Section 52 of the Act provides a detailed list of acts that do not constitute infringement. Owner of the copyright can seek criminal and civil remedies against accused infringer.